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Bi-lateral and Multi-lateral Trade Agreements
Crime Issues in Mega Cities
Cuba and the United States
Deforestation of the Amazon
Elections and Multi-party systems
Emergence of Anti-USA Policy
Emergence of the Multi-Ethnic State
Experiences with Truth and Reconciliation Commissions
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A SOUTH AMERICAN SUPERPOWER
Map of Brazil
Before undergoing three centuries of Portuguese colonialism, Brazil was inhabited by native groups such as Arawak (North), Carib (North), Tupi-Guarani (East coast), Ge (East and South) and Pano (West). These groups lived off the land by hunting, gatherin
g and simple knowledge of agriculture. It was in 1500 that Pedro Álvares Cabral, a Portuguese navigator claimed the area of Brazil for Portugal.
In the end, The Portuguese were the first European settlers to arrive in the area. There were roughly seven million native Indians within the area, with limited agriculture. Villages had as many as 5000 inhabitants. Tribal warfare and Cannibalism were common. There is little trace of Brazil's Indian tribes before Pedro Cabral took over, so we know very little about their sense of lifestyle. To date, fewer than 200, 000 of Brazil's indigenous people live within jungle areas, and barely survive.
Several other Portuguese explorers followed Cabral, in search for land, valuable goods and to escape poverty in Portugal. The one item these explorers found, was the "Pau do Brasil" which is also known as the "Brazil wood tree." They used this tree to create red dye. The "Pau do Brasil" is pictured
The Portuguese in Brazil were not particularly driven to conquer, control and develop their country compared to the Spanish. Most of the Portuguese were poor sailors, who were interested more in trade and agriculture than gaining territory. Sugar soon came to Brazil, along with slaves which were imported. The Portuguese settlers were usually intermarried with the Indians and African slaves. There were also marriages between the Africans and Indians, which were seen as mixed marriages. Through this, Brazil's population grew substantially. A huge feature of current Brazilian culture, is that most Brazilians' heritage consist of a combination of European, African, Amerindian, Asian, and Middle Eastern lineage.
In the 19th century, coffee took the place of sugar as Brazil's most important product. This boom in coffee production, pushed millions of European immigrants to come work. In 1889, the wealthy coffee owners backed a military coup, and the Emperor fled. From that moment on, Brazil was no longer an imperial country, and the coffee planters basically owned the country and it's government for the next thirty years. The world wide depression eliminated coffee demand, and the next half century Brazil struggled with government stability, a fragile economy, and military coups. In 1989, the country had its first democratic election in almost thirty years. The country elected Fernando Collor de Mello, who corrupted the country and it's economy. Brazil had successfully attained independence with no loss of lives. Unlike most Latin American Countries Brazil had escaped the use of war and obliteration of the environment when declaring its independence from Portugal.
Brazil has the title of having the sixth largest population in the world, consisting of roughly 148 people which has doubled in the past three decades. Because of its massive size, there are roughly 15 people per square km.
Location of Brazil
Brazil is located in Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Latitude: 10 00 S
Longtitude: 55 00 W
Brazil's total area is
8,514,877 sq km. It is the fifth largest country in the world. The land area is measured to be 8 459 417 sq km while the water area is 55 460 sq km is size.
Brazil borders almost all of the countries in South America with the exception of Chile. Brazil is the largest country in South America.
Brazil's climate can be decribed as mostly tropical in the North (A-type climate) and temperate in the South (C-type climate). The temperate meditarranean climate in the southern part of Brazil is more conducive to human settlement and agriculture and therefore is more popolous that its northern counterpart.
Flash floods are huge in Brazil, in addition to landslides. They usually occur in the poorer urban areas. Reoccurring droughts are also common within the northeast, and there is some occasional frost in the south.
Brazil is a country rich with different natural resources such as bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, and timber.
Brazil does not have a official religion, however most Brazilians belive in some higher power. The Constitution grants freedom of religion which is key to a country, it is a civil right to worship and pray freely to whatever religeous instituiton you deem necessary. Most of Brazils population declare themselves as Roman Catholic, however there are many subdivsions when it comes to religion. These subdivisions include Protestant, Pentecostal, Episcopal, Methodist, Lutheran, and over half a million are spiritists. There are also small minorities of Jews, Muslims, and Buddhists as well.
Church in Petropolis
130 million, 74% of the population.
25 million, 15.4% of the population.
Afro Brazilian Religions
: 0.3% of population.
It is very surprising to see that almost 100% of Brazils population speak portuguese. Portuguese is the official language of Brazil, and is practically used everywhere from school, television, and is used on every form of writing. Brazil is very unique aside from the other Latin American countries. The common language spoken in the Americas is spanish however Brazil speaks portuguese. This language gives Brazil a sence of identity and culture different from most Latin American countries.
The Amazon basin is the world’s largest tropical rainforest and river basin. The Amazon is an area with extreme diversity and millions of species that are yet to be discovered. Much research has been done about the Amazon, however more research is needed because not all of it has been explored. The rainforest covers up 40% of the South American continent that is almost half of the Americas which make it all the more important to know more about it. An interesting fact to point out is that more than 33% of all species in the World live in the Brazils rainforest. The Rainforest is home to 2.5 million insect species, tens of thousands of plants, and almost 2000 birds and mammals. These are the number of different kinds of species of plant life, fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mamals exist in the area today:
Deforestation in the Amazon: The Amazon is a habitat to several kinds of animal species and their homes are being destroyed as we speak. Most of this has been done by land clearing for commercial or government policy. Most people do not understand the severity of the situation. Millions of animal and plant life are being destroyed at the expense of human development. Much of this is correlated with the economy of Brazil. Causes of deforestation in the Amazon are the following:
Logging, legal and illegal:
Fires, mining, urbanization,road construction, dams
Amazon Rivers: The Amazon is the World’s second largest river. The Nile is the longest however the Amazon River is the widest. Much scientific research has been done and about 20% of all the freshwater discharges into the oceans. It is 6,259km/3,903mi and 6,712km/4, 195 mi long. The reason for this is because huge amounts of rainfall occur yearly in these tropical zones, it averages out to more than an inch (3cm) of rain everyday. The Amazon River is very beautiful and mysterious to look at and it is also home to the most extremely dangerous animals in the World. This vast amount of water holds many secrets and much more is yet to be exposed in the years to come.
One of the most pressing issues in the country of Brazil is the deforestation in the Amazon region. The Amazon Basin accounts for 30% of the continent and the Amazon rainforest is the largest equitorial rainforest in the world. The Amazon rainforest's function as "carbon sink" is very important when it comes to reducing carbon emmisons in the environment. Frequent rains and the continuing deforestation of the Amazon is leading to increase frequency in soil degradation and soil erosion. Deforestation is also causing a loss in biodiversity and species extinction as more and more animals continue to lose their homes
The minimum age to get married in Brazil is 18 years old for men, 16 years of age for women. The divorce rate in Brazil has been increasing since 1985. Most people believe that this is because of the law in 1988 that men could have only two divorces in their lifetime. As the years have progressed this law has been passed and men and women may marry and divorce as many times as they want.
external image ist2_3139917_wedding_rings_3d.jpg
In the past Brazilian women who have been divorced were unwelcomed in the society, and frowned upon. It was very stereotypical, and most men would avoid the harassment compared to women. However in 21 century most Brazilian women are not afraid to have divorces when suffering from unhealthy relationships, and abusive husbands. Statistics prove that 73% of divorces are commenced by women. There is a twist to divorce in Brazil. Brazilian Law states that couples who are married must wait two years after their marriage if a divorce is needed. Divorced couples must wait two years before they can marry again.There have been many cases of women in Brazil pursuing married men which has been verified by a psychologist of the name Mr. Louis.
Brazil is an emerging economic superpower with an economy primarily composed of agriculture, mining, manufacturing, tourism and the service sector. Brazil`s economy currently ranks first among others in the South American region. Brazil's economy currently ranks 8th in the world, however it is still considered a developing country.
Between the years 1968-1974 Brazils manufacturing, exports had increased dramatically. The yearly growth had far surpassed 10%, this period in time was called the ‘Brazilian Miracle’. During this time frame Brazils economy was thriving, however the Brazilian Miracle had ended due to debt because of Brazils high energy costs.
Exports: $197.9 billion (2008 est.)
Transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, and autos. Brazil is a major exporter of certain variety of products, Brazil is the current number one exporter for coffee. Some of Brazil's export partners are the United States (14.4%), China(12.4%), Argentina (8.4%), Netherlands(5%) and Germany(4.5%) 
Imports: $173.1 billion (2008 est.)
Machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics. Some of Brazil's major import partners are the United States (14.9%), China (11.6%), Argentina (7.9%) and Germany (7%) 
GDP (Gross Domestic Product):
In comparison to the rest of the world, the country of Brazil ranks 10th with a GDP of $1.998 trillion
GDP per capita:
Brazil's GDP per capita as of 2008, is estimated to be $10 200 which ranks 102in comparison to the world.
One of Brazil's major exports
As of 2005, Brazil's GINI index or better known as the distribution of family income was measured as 56.7
93.65 million (2008 est.)
7.9% (2008 est.)
Population percentage below the poverty line:
31% (2007 est.)
38.8 % of GDP (2008 est.)
Brazil's currency unit is the
) and is made up of 100
and written using the symbol
Reals (BRL) per US dollar - 1.8644 (2008 est.), 1.85 (2007 est
.), 2.1761 (2006), 2.4344 (2005), 2.9251 (2004)
Promoting tourism in Brazil has been placed high in the list of priorities of the government´s agenda. The Ministry of Tourism, created in 2003, has doubled the number of international events and fairs promoting tourism in Brazil and invested heavily in the country´s infrastructure. The Program for the Development of Tourism in the North East has invested in excess of $736 million in several hundred infrastructure projects to improve airports, roads and drainage, and programmes of heritage restoration and environmental protection are ongoing. The tourism industry has already become one of the country´s biggest employers, employing one in every 11 workers. In 2005 approximately 9 million jobs were linked to Brazil´s travel and tourism industry and the sector generated more than 250,000 new jobs.
Salvador do Bahia
Beach in Brazil
Brazil's diverse and sophisticated service industry includes developed telecommunications, banking, energy, commerce and computing sectors. Brazil has a strong and secure financial sector that provides local firms with a range of different financial products.
Brazil has a diverse manufacturing sector with industries such as textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts. As of 2008, Brazil has an estimated industrial production growth of 4.3%.
In 2000, the agriculture sector of
Brazil's agriculture sector
about 5.8% of
7% of the
GDP. Brazil has a variety of crops that make up the agriculture sector of the country's economy. Some of these crops are coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, and citrus. In fact, Brazilian coffee is the most consumed coffee in the world with more than 30% of the world's coffee is produced in Brazil. In 2005, Brazil also placed second when it comes to soybean porduction after the United Staetes producing 57 million tonnes. Apart from these crops, Brazil also produces cattle. As of 2005, the country produced an estimated 19.1 billion pounds of beef. in 2003, Brazil surpassed Argentina and became the world leader in beef exports.
From the ages 21-45 it is a requirement for Brazilian citizens to be involved in military service. Volunteering work is also available from ages 17-45, there is a large increase in the service sector. Women are able to paticiapate in the military as well. In the 1980's Brazil was the first army in South America to accept women into the work force. One of the biggest projects Brazil has embarked on is the technological development from 1960's to 1990. Brazil signed a treaty called the proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) with Argentina and made an oath to only use the atomic power for peaceful purposes. This are the current statistics for military work in Brazil:
Fit for Military Service:
Reaching Military Age Annually:
Navy in Sao Paulo
Active Military Personnel:
Active Military Reserve:
Active Paramilitary Units:
Total Land-Based Weapons:
Foreign Exch. & Gold:
Brazil is an active member of the international community. Brazil is a member of the United Nations, UNESCO, IMF, Union Latina, WTO, G15 and G20 to name a few. Brazil is also a temporary member of the United Nations Security Council.
Brazil is a federal republic with 26 states and about 5 560 municipalities. The Brazilian government is divided into Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches where the executive branch is represented by the President of the Republic. the Legislature is called upon by the senators, deputies, state representitives and city councilors which are chosen using a direct vote.
Brazil's capital is Brasilia. It gained its independence from Portugal on September 7, 1822.
Brazil's current legal system is based on Roman codes. Like the United States, Brazil has a presidential system. Brazil's current president is
President Luiz Inacio LULA de Silva (Worker's Party).
He is also the chief of state and the head of the government. The next election for the presidency and vice presidency is scheduled to happen on October 3, 2010
Brazil has a total of 21 parties with the four main ones being the
(Partido dos Trabahaldores),
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party
(Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro),
Brazilian Social Democracy Party
(Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira) and the
The Brazilian Flag
Brazil seeks to maintain a cooperative relationship with its neighbour countries, it has played an integral part in the World Trade Organization (WTO) and has worked hard to create economic and trade agreements with other countries including Africa and South America. Brazil seeks to implement a greater social justice globally. Being one of the founding members of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) it holds a veto power in accordance with thier decisions, this adds strength behind Brazils position in the organization.
The Brazil flag was adopted in 1889. Brazil's national flag has a green field, with a yellow rhombus in the centre. Wiithin the rhombus is a blue circle with 27 stars representing each and every 'Federal District' as well as the state of Brazil. A white banner also rans through the circle with the words "Ordem e Progresso" written on it. This translates into "Order and Progress" in English. It is also said that the green color signifies the country's pasture and forest region while the yellow indicates Brazil's gold resources.
LEADER PROFILE: PRESIDENT LUIZ INACIO LULA de SILVA:
Luiz was a former labour union and a candidate of the Brazillian Workers Party (PT). Luiz had attempted presidency many times before however radicals had made it impossible. Aside from that he had accepted the role as the 35 president of Brazil, and had taken a different approach when it came to economic policymaking. Luiz firstly wanted to take care of the fiscal debt and the social debt while advocating change at the same time. Luiz had successfully avoided the wrath of the elites, and to this day Brazil is not as polarized as many of its neighboring countries.
President Luiz Inacio Lula de Silva
With a population of
198 739 269
, Brazil ranks fifth in comparison to the world.
Rural: 14% of population (2008)
Urban: 86% of population (2008)
Brazil's two most populous cities, Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro support a combination of more than 17 million people. Sao Paulo is considered as Brazil's economic capital while Brasilia is the national capital of
Brazil. Brasilia is the 4th most populous city in Brazil with a popultion of around 3 million.
List of Brazil's top 5 cities:
Janeiro(6 186 710), Salvador(2 998 056),
Brasilia(2 606 885)
and Fortaleza(2 505 552)
Janeiro(10 556 000), Belo Horizante(4 160 000), Porto Alegre (3 699 000) and Recife(3 307 000)
AVERAGE POP. GROWTH RATE:
1.199% (2009 est.)
ETHNIC GROUPS: (based on 2000 consensus)
Other (Japanese, Arab, Amerindian):
LITERACY RATE: 88.6%
Universidade Federal do Parana
Brazil’s education system is comprises of both public and private schooling. Public schooling is funded by the government and is therefore free for all Brazilian citizens however private schooling isn’t. The government funds the school system with 25% of its revenues. Public schools in Brazil are usually lacking in infrastructure with sometimes no plumbing or heating. The private schools in Brazil however have a different story and are in better working conditions. To this day, the Brazilian government is still looking for a way to improve the education system. Reforms since 1998 have made efforts to make high school free and are allocating 18% of the country’s budget to this cause. These reforms were made in hopes of increase the literacy rate of the country.
BRAZIL AND NORTH AMERICA:
Brazil and Canada:
Canada opened its first trade office in Brazil in 1866 with its first canadian embassy there in 1944. Brazil opened its first embassy in Canada in May 1941 in Ottawa, there are now offices in Halifax, Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver. Canada and Brazil have a friendly relationship because they have many things in common, both countries have a vast amount of multiculturalism and both countries have large expanses of land that are sparsely populated. The Canadian Minister of Trade and Minister of Forigen Affairs have both traveled to Brazil in the past two years.
Canada and Brazil have signed many treaties over the years that have assisted in the development of thier friendship, in November 2008 they established a Framework Agreement for Cooperation on Science, Technology and Innovation which provides bilateral cooperation in areas of common interest. the two countries share a common interest when it comes to the UN, promoting peace-keeping and cultural diversity and furthering human rights globally.
Over the years stronger academic ties have been formed between the two countries, including a Brazillian Association of Canadian Studies (ABECAN) and scholorships for Brazilian students to come study in canada. In 2008 approximately
17 000 brazilians came to study in Canada and 100 of those students recieved scholorships. Five universities across Canada now hold a visiting seat for a Brazilian student, this has opened doors for cultural experiences that are one of a kind.
Brazil is Canada's largest merchandise trading partner in Latin America and the Carribean region, not including Mexico. There is no denying that Canada has products to offer Brazil, while Brazil also has products to offer Canada in return. Canada exported a total of $2.6 billion dollars in merchandise to Brazil in 2008 while they imported $2.6 Billion dollars from them. Brazil was also the seventh source globally of forigen inverstment into stocks in Canada, investing $11.9 billion cumulatevly in 2008.
Brazil and the Unites States:
Brazil's relationship with the United States has always been on good terms. Brazil and the United States both signed a Military Assistance in 1952, this clearly states that Brazil retrives most of its military weapons and navy training from the U.S. Brazil had fought side by side with the United States in WW2. The United States main concern in Brazil is the control of drug tafficking.
75.73 years (2009 est.)
68.4 years old (2009 est.)
18.43 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
6.35 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
INFANT MORTALITY RATE:
22.58 deaths/1,000 live births
HIV/AIDS - DEATH
15 000 (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - ADULT PREVALANCE RATE:
0.6% (2007 est.)
The Constitution of 1988 in Brazil grants that all its citizens the right to acquire free medical assistance from public and private providers that are reimbursed by the government. While the public domain oversees basic and preventive health care, the private domain, both non-profit and for-profit health care sector delivers the bulk of medical services, including government-subsidized inpatient care.
The infrastructure in Brazil is poor. The main use of transportation is the use of trucks which damage the cement and roads.
Roads of all types have been built in the country from federal aid, with nearly 1 751 862 km of roads running all across Brazil. Traveling by roadway is heavily depended on, with 95% of all passenger movement and 70% of all cargo movement across the country utilizing the road network (2004). Some of the downfalls regarding the road network is the ability of private companies to own certain sections of the hiways resulting, in some areas, to a toll being charged. Most of the railways are uncompetative and very few railways exist in Brazil. Brazil's railway system has been on the decline since 1945 due to
highway construction. Neverless there is still 29 487 km of railway running through Brazil, in 2005 the railway was utilized to transport a total 388.8 million tons of cargo. Coastal shipping is highly common, with 37 deep water ports and 42 private terminals. 13.9% of cargo movement was done thanks to the waterways. Air transportation is immensely developed, with almo
st 4000 airports, 21 of them international, and 665 with paved runways. Hydroelectric plants produce the majority of the power in Brazil which is 91% of the total prroduction.
Brazil is a subordiante to the Ministry of Communications, making communicating in this area very easy and efficient. The countries telecommunications and broadcasting are monitored by the National Telecommunications Agency (ANATEL) which provides ground for an effective line of telephones, mobile phones and television cable. the television networks reach approximately 80.4% of households while radio broadcasts reach 90% of households. The countries mail service is not run under ANATEL but there are 12 449 branches both franchised and state run by which you can send your mail.
These are the stats for the increase in population and internet users in Brazil.
C. I. Almanac
I. T. U.
I. T. U.
I. T. U.
Brazilian culture is no doubt an exemplary model of a blend of native traditions and colonial influences. The Brazilian way of life has been anything but boring; it’s culture and traditions has been vastly influenced by the Europeans, Africans, Asians and of course Americans. Art of expression in music, literature and cinema are crucial to Brazil’s culture. Sports are also another important part in Brazilian culture. Brazilians are well known for their love of soccer, and football. Besides sports and art, religion is another vital part of the Brazilian culture.
Events and holidays in Brazil are definitely celebrated, especially Carnivals. Carnivals are an integral part of Brazil’s culture and play a huge role in events and holidays in Brazil. There are over 16 national holidays in Brazil, I will highlight the most interesting ones. These holidays consist of the following:
New Year's Day:
These holidays consist of the following: This is celebrates December 31. The place to be on New Years in Brazil capital city in Rio De Janerio.
This occurs late February and early March. This is one of the most famous celebrations in Brazil. It lasta 5 days and ends at the arrival of Ash Wednesday. This marks the end of school and the beggining of Brazils summer. Since the majority of Brazils population are Catholic all of the above are national holidays.
This occurs April 21. This celebration is mainly political and is done in memory of
Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier. He was a hero according to Brazilians because he fought for Brazilian independence in 1789 against the Portuguese.
This occurs June the 12. This holiday is very similar to Valentine’s day in North America.
Carnival in Brazil
Celebration in Brazil
The Brazilian music scene has many faces. The Brazilians enjoy a variety of musical styles from forró, frevo, samba, bossa and nova. Moreover, Brazilian classical music is also rich on its own. Famous composers such as Antonio Carlos Gomes, José Maurício Nunes Garcia, Heitor Villa-Lobos, Elias Álvares Lobo, Osvaldo Lacerda, Camargo Guarnieri and Cláudio Santoro have kept the genre of classical music in this country enriched and preserved.
Like music, literature is also a vital part of Brazil's culture. Authors such as Padre Antonio Vieira, José de Alencar and Gonçalves Dias have all earned considerable worldwide fame for their national literary works.
external image 6a00d83451c1ce69e200e54f428ea38834-800wi.jpg
Brazilians are well known for their love of sports specially soccer. In fact, Brazil holds the record for most wins in the World Cup Soccer series. It has won five times (1958, 1962 1970, 1994, and 2002). Brazil is also scheduled to host the 2014 World Cup Soccer. This event will be for the first time since 1978 be held in South America and Brazil's 2nd time hosting the games.
Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world
Brazil has the eight largest economy in the world
Brazil is the most populous country in Latin America
Statue on top of Corcovado mountain in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is one of the new 7 wonders of the world
Brazil has won the World Cup Soccer five times which is more than any other country
The Amazon rainforest in North Brazil is the largest rainforest in the world
The Amazon river is the 2nd longest river in the world
When it comes to rivers, the Amazon discharges the most volume of water
"Christ Redeemer" statue
The world’s best and most delicious coffee is produced in Brazil.
Apparently, Brazil has the 2nd highest Christian population in the whole world
Agriculture in Brazil
(2010 January 20).
Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia:
Encyclopedia of the Nations
Background Note: Brazil
(2009 November). Retrieved January 23, 2010) from U.S. Department of State, Diplomacy in Action:
(2010, January 4). Retrieved January 15, 2010, from CIA- The World Factbook:
Brazilian Coffee Beans
(2010). Retrieved January 22, 2010, from Gourmet Coffee Shop.net:
(2007 October 12).
Retrieved January 17, 2010,
from Wikipeedia, The Free Encyclopedia:
List of large cities in Brazil
Largest Cities of the World- by population
(25 January 2010). Retrieved January 25, 2010
from Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
The official New 7 Wonders of the World
(2007 July 7). Retrieved January 25, 2010 from New 7 Wonders:
How to Export to Brazil
(2007 January). Retrieved January 28, 2010, from the Program for competitive Substitution of Imports, the Ministry of External Relations and the Brazilian Government:
(2009 November 13). Retrieved January 28, 2010, from the Government of Canada:
other hot spots in Brazil (2004-2007) Retrieved Febuary 2, 2010, from Rio for Partiers:
Hillman, Richard pg 105 (Leader profile)
( Brazil and United States)
(Stats chart under communication)
( Holidays, events)
( Interesting facts)
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