external image Cuba_Flag.gifexternal image us_flag.gifCUBA
&
THE UNITED STATES

The relationship between Cuba and the United States goes back a long way, all the way back to a pre-independent Cuba. It is a very unique relationship, and as a group we will explain the development, complexities, and the significant events that have affected this relationship and that have had a profound impact on not just Cuba and the United States, but on Latin America as a whole. As we explore this relationship, we hope to bring a better understanding to the readers as to why things are the way they are today, how they came to be, and how they may develop in the future.

Pre-independence


Cuban-U.S. relations started in the early 1800’s not long after the United States gained independence. In 1808 President Thomas Jefferson appeals to Spain about whether they would consider ceding Cuba to the U.S. but Spain was not interested.

Ever since initial attempts, the U.S. has had ulterior motives when it came to dealing with Cuba. When Cuba began to flourish and prosper through their resources and international trade, the United States developed strong economic ties with Cuba becoming Cuba’s main trading partner, over Spain. As the U.S. gained Florida from Spain, they turned their attention to Cuba believing that U.S. “annexation of Cuba within half a century despite obstacles”[1] would no doubt occur.



1898-1902


First American Intervention in Cuba:
The first American intervention occurred between 1898 and 1902. In 1898 the United States helped Cuba find independence from Spanish rule. At the same time the United Sates established the type of relationship that wished to have with Latin America: one of influence, where the United States had the power to define the economic and political order throughout the American Continent. The U.S. intervened with Spanish control over Cuba with Congress declaring “that Cuba has the right to be free and independent”[2] . However the Teller Amendment added that this did not mean the U.S. had any “intention to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction, or control over the island except for the pacification thereof”[3] . Thus this allows the United States to oust Spain through military action and the President declares a blockade of Cuba at the northern coast. This act of war done by the U.S. is answered by Spain, and the Spanish-American War began. The war ended with the United States coming out victorious and Spain having to give up all claims to Cuba and cede it to the U.S.

In Cuba the peoples struggle continued for several years. Finally in 1898 the US intervened in Cuba because of economical interests and national security (Cuba is too close to America). Cuba as well, looked up to the US for socio-economical well-being. The United States explanation was that Spain was incompetent to restore and maintain peace and order in Cuba and therefore they helped Cuba find “independence”.

Now, in order to fully comprehend this first intervention is important to look at part of the Cuban perspective. In an article by
Tania Díaz Castrosome of the Cuban feelings are expressed: “No hay historiador serio cubano que no haya elogiado las ventajas que ofreció a Cuba la primera intervención norteamericana, ocurrida entre 1898 y 1902”.[4] Translated it reads: “There is no serious historian that has not praised the advantages that offered Cuba the first American intervention, which happened between 1898 and 1902”. The article names some of the actions that America took in Cuba during those years. The United States helped Cuba while building influence and preventing other powers to take over the Island. Some of its help was concerning the “water supply, sewerage, street lighting, telephone services and gas, garbage collection, street paving and public transport, conditions that had never been created by the Spanish”. The first intervention was not seen to Cubans as a disadvantage but a great help that will never be forgotten. The US on the other hand saw it as a chance to demonstrate their influence in Latin America and to protect the country, since Cuba is one of their closest neighbors.

In 1901, the United States created the Platt Amendment which was a drafted set of articles that would heavily influence Cuban-American relations. Through its terms “Cuba would not transfer Cuban land to any power other than the U.S., Cuba’s right to negotiate treaties was limited, rights to a naval base in Cuba (Guantanamo Bay) were ceded to the United States, U.S. intervention in Cuba ‘for the preservation of Cuban independence’ was permitted, and a formal treaty detailing all the foregoing provisions was provided for”
3. The U.S. refused to stop their occupation in Cuba until the Platt Amendment was made a part of the Cuban constitution, which Cuba did despite considerable resistance from within. There were several instances in which the U.S. used the amendment to send troops into Cuba or to “place friendly governments in power and to protect investments” 4. The amendment was dissolved in 1934.

Throughout the nineteenth century, Cuba became increasingly dependent upon the United States as a source for most of their essential needs. The U.S. provided many various consumer goods and was not only a defender of the people and the way things were currently being run, but they were relied upon as a source of credit and capital. These conditions were favoured with most Cubans and “underscored the desirability if not perhaps the inevitability of annexation”
2. The United States fully intended to create such a union that it almost became a foregone conclusion. Despite all their energy, when Fidel Castro assumed power in 1959, they lost all control of Cuba that they previously held.

INTERESTING: Visual Cartoon about Cuba's hope of being saved from the Spanish by the United States. Link: http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/1868/intervention-1869.htm

1906-1922


Second American Intervention in Cuba:
In 1906 Tomás Estrada Palma was inaugurated President for a second term. The US signs a new lease for Guantánamo Bay and Bahía Honda, for which the U.S. will pay $2,000 per year. After this open rebellion breaks out. This becomes known as "the little war of August." Estrada Palma orders an increase of 2,000 men in the rural guards. Rebel forces are in control of most of the island. Estrada says he will not deal with the rebels until they lay down their weapons. President Palma asked for US forcible intervention. Pamphlets distributed in Havana accuse Estrada Palma of stalling for time while working to secure U.S. intervention. The U.S. accepts helping, then cruiser "Denver" arrives in Havana harbor. Estrada Palma addresses the Cuban congress. U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt sends an open letter to Gonzalo de Quesada, the Cuban minister to Washington. He announces that he will send Secretary of War William H. Taft and Assistant Secretary of State Bacon to Cuba as special representatives. Taft and Bacon arrive in Havana on the S.S. Des Moines decide that the 1905 elections were dishonest. U.S. sailors land in Cienfuegos. Estrada Palma hands custody of the treasury to Taft and Bacon. U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt names Taft "U.S. Governor of Cuba." The US takes control of the Cuban government. Later on Magoon replaces Taft as Military Governor of Cuba. In 1909 US military forces leave Cuba for 2nd time. Just like in 1906 the US occupies Cuba for a third time in 1912 to restore order. This will happen again from 1917 till 1922.

1959


Fidel Castro took control of Cuba in 1959 after an unsuccessful attempt of revolt in 1953. Castro’s dislike of the United States was instilled in him at a young age from a father who supported Spain in the Spanish-American war, to teachers both of whom “transmitted to their young disciple their enthusiasm for their cause and for Hispanidad, a movement initiated by Ramiro de Maetzu”5. Fidel Castro believed that the U.S. “took advantage of a weak Spain and frustrated the Cubans’ aspirations to real independence”5 and put his belief into actions. He remained the President of Cuba until February 2008, when he resigned due to illness. Castro stayed in power through ten American Presidencies, majority of which have remained hostile to Cuba, continuing harsh measures including “prolonged economic sanctions and designation of Cuba as a State Sponsor of Terrorism”6.

1961


Fifth American Intervention in Cuba:
The Bay of Pigs was a failed attempt from the US at taking power from Cuban President Fidel Castro. The US supported an exiled group of Cubans leaded by José Miró Cardona. Many events led the president of the US Mr. Dwight D. Eisenhower to break the relationship with Cuba in January of 1961.The US begins a blockading and Cuba finds a way to protect itself: The Soviet Union. The Soviet Prime Minister Anastas Mikoyan and President Fidel Castro sign a trade agreement in which the Soviet Union agrees to purchase 5 million tons of sugar over a five-year period. The Soviet Union offers its help to Cuba in event of a U.S. invasion. Fidel Castro said that Cuba would take the Soviet Union’s help with gratitude. Meanwhile the CIA had been training the self-proclaimed Cuban exiled government with hopes of a near future invasion on Cuba. This invasion was approved by the new president John F. Kennedy.
On April 17th around 1500 exiled men arrived at the Bay of Pigs located at the South of the Island. This “exiles army” tried to find support in locals in order to reach the Havana but they were stopped by the real Cuban Army. The Cuban army won the fight and the exiled men that did not die were imprisoned. 20 months after the Bay of Pigs the prisoners were released into the US just a few months after the Cuban Missile Crisis resolution. Where the first group of prisoners arrived at the United States President Kennedy said: “I can assure you that this flag will be returned to this Brigade in a free Havana”JFK Library.org. In the world today the relationship between Cuba and the US has remained the same.
kennedy-2506-flag.jpg
President Kennedy receives the Brigade 2506 flag in Miami in Dec. 29, 1962 and declares: "I can assure you that this flag will be returned to this brigade in a free Havana."


1962


The Cuban Embargo:
One of the first economic sanctions against Cuba were imposed in 1960 by completely stopping sugar cane imports from Cuba. All of this was in response to Cuba’s nationalization on mostly American owned companies in Cuba; it was also one of the responses right before the Bay of Pigs. Ever since the sanctions imposed against Cuba have increased and become stricter.
Some of these sanctions are:
· Trading With the Enemy Act of 1917, section 5(b);
· Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, section 620(a);
· Cuba Assets Control Regulations of 1963;
· Cuban Democracy Act of 1992, also known as the Torricelli Act;
· Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (Libertad) Act of 1996, (Helms-Burton Act);
· The Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act of 2000.
http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AMR25/007/2009/en/51469f8b-73f8-47a2-a5bd-f839adf50488/amr250072009eng.pdf

On 3 February 1962, the authority of the Foreign Assistance Act allowed President John F. Kennedy to suspend all trade with Cuba. He imposed an embargo on all trade with Cuba, prohibiting the “importation into the United States of all goods of Cuban origin and goods imported from or through Cuba” and “all exports from the United States to Cuba”http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=58824. Now the Embargo has been written a Law. The sanctions were extremely strict on commerce and travel. It forces all Cuban assets to be frozen when within the USA and it mandates that all commercial transactions with Cuba are regulated, including authorized travel by nationals. The regulations do not ban travel itself, but traveling to Cuba is slow because of all the regulations. In 1992 President George H. Bush signed and put on action the Cuban Democracy Act. It forbids subsidiaries from US companies to trade with Cuba, US nationals from traveling to Cuba and remittances to be sent from the US into Cuba among other prohibitions. Although the Act is very tight in its measures it allows US NGO’s to provide assistance to Cuba only for humanitarian reasons. The remittances were also only allowed if it was for Cubans to move to the US. In March 1996, President Bill Clinton signed into law the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity. It further wrote into law the sanctions against Cuba. It seek to strengthen the sanctions against Castro’s Cuba and to help Cuba transition into democracy. In October 2000 the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export Enhancement Act (TSRA) was passed. After this started the enforcement of the economic and trade embargo started to be more open. Since 2002, the USA has been the major supplier of food and agricultural products to Cuba. Under the TSRA, exports of food and agricultural products remain to be regulated by the Department of Commerce and asked a license for export or re-export. For several years Democrat and Republican members of Congress have introduced several bills to the US Senate and House of Representatives all of them aimed at either easing or actually removing the Embargo.

INTERESTING: News video of the possibility of President Barrack Obama easing the sanctions against Cuba by the Washington Post. Link:http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/video/2009/04/13/VI2009041302178.html

Communism: America’s Greatest Enemy

As evident in Munroe Doctrine and the Roosevelt Corollary, the United States has always had a tendency towards excessive intervention in foreign countries, generally for their own convenience, whether for investment, profit, or just to eliminate threats they consider malignant, rather than for the best interests of the respective country. This was the case with Cuba and its radical change of regime, from capitalism to socialism, and from a US-backed “democracy” to communist rule. After the end of World War II, a fear of communism swept over the United States, initiating interventions all over Latin America, including the famous Bay of Pigs invasion and the numerous attempts to assassinate Fidel
Castro. After the Castro’s successful revolution to oust the Batista’s dictatorship in 1959, the United States grew extremely wary of the possibility of having a communist country so close to their shores. Initiated by the expropriation and nationalization of many American enterprises and companies, the “threat” to America largely increased with the swiftly developing relationship between Cuba and the Soviet Union. After the United States imposed many sanctions and pressures on Cuba regarding trade, after its refusal to cooperate with the American government, Cuba needed to find a buyer for their commodities, which at this point in time was largely dominated by sugar. Therefore, after rejection from the United States, Cuba turned to the next world superpower for help; the Soviet Union. The relationship between these two countries, both with very similar ideals (often including a strong anti-yankee sentiment), thrived and the United States could not bear to have an ally of its biggest rival, of the communist Soviet Union, so near it. This eventually lead to the infamous Cuban Missile Crisis, where it got to the point of being on the brink of a nuclear war. [8] [9] [10] [11] [17]


The Cuban Missile Crisis


Subsequently, in 1962, Nikita Khrushchev, the premier of the Soviet Union at the time, developed a plan to combat the United State’s surging technology of missiles. The United States had missile installations in Turkey at the time and Khrushchev took advantage of the new relationship with Cuba to install Soviet missiles extremely close to the United States. Castro agreed to this Soviet plan because it would prevent another American invasion and protect Cuba from “another Bay of Pigs”. Once the American president at the time, John F. Kennedy, found out about missiles he set up a naval quarantine against Cuba, preventing any Soviet equipment or supplies from reaching Cuban shores. Regardless, functioning missiles aimed the United States were put into place in Cuba, and the world could only wait. The climax of the crisis occurred on Saturday, October 27, 1962, when the solution to the situation seemed to be put on hold. Although, the American naval barrier was never violated by the Soviets, there was a lot of pressure on the American president, Kennedy, to make a move, especially when an American jet was shot down over Cuba that very same day. Predictably, this increased the tension between the two superpowers immensely. Throughout the crisis, many letters and telegraphs were exchanged between the president of the United States, John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev, and to the world’s relief, after many complex and detailed negotiations, they eventually decided to end the crisis on strict conditions. Under these conditions, the Soviet Union would remove the missiles in exchange for a guarantee that the United States would not invade Cuba, and in addition the United States would have to remove its missiles from Turkey. This crisis, and particularly October 27, can arguably be considered one of the most dangerous moments for humanity in its history. The aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis, did put a large strain on the Soviet-Cuban relationship due to the fact that the agreements for the dismantling of the missiles was made exclusively between Nikita Khrushchev and President Kennedy; Castro and Guevara, or any Cubans for that matter, were completely uninvolved in the final say.[12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17]

Cubans in the United States

Millions of Cubans have made their new home in the United States and they have quite a significant influence in the Florida area. The first exodus of Cuba towards the United States came between 1959-1962, after the successful revolution Fidel Castro and his first years in power. The Cubans who made their way to the US were mostly upper and middle class families, often with political views different than Castro’s. Three more waves of immigration came after, one from around 1965- 1974, and then the notable Mariel Boatlift in 1980, where any Cuban wanting to leave Cuba was given permission to, leading to approximately 125,000 undocumented Cubans making their way to American shores. The final influx of immigration continues today and started after the crumbling of the Soviet Union and communism. Many of these immigrants made and continue to make the less-than 100 mile journey on makeshift rafts, or rickety boats. It is also important to take into consideration that a majority of these Cubans leave to Florida for political reasons. For this reason, there anti-Castro and anti-communism sentiment runs rampant in Florida. Many of these immigrants are political exiles and seek refuge in the United States, and the American government has been quite flexible and hospitable towards Cubans in this regard. There is a general rule that Cubans that reach American soil are allowed to stay and steps are taken towards them becoming American citizens.


As mentioned earlier, there is certain hostility towards these immigrants’ motherland, mainly towards the government. For these reasons, there have been many efforts and movements that have attempted to or planned to oust Fidel Castro and to “take Cuba back”. Groups such as Alpha 66 have been formed, and there have been plots to assassinate Castro, many have been carried out, but all have obviously failed. Alpha 66 was established in 1961 and included 66 members; they often refer to themselves as “Cuban Freedom Fighters”. The main goal of Alpha 66 is carry out attacks on Cuba to eventually free it from the rigid grip Fidel Castro. First they began just with commando attacks, but soon they developed a guerrilla force to attempt to carry out larger missions.


There have been numerous attacks on Cuba, often resulting in casualties, prisoner taking, and further hostility among Cuban Americans and Cubans. There has been a large controversy in the United States regarding groups such as Alpha 66. The CIA and the American government have seemed to overlook these movements (the CIA are involved in or affiliated with many of them, including various assassination attempts on Fidel) and no punishments or consequences have been issued to these groups even though a large number of them are violating many American laws regarding terrorism, other than an a gun charge here or there. This controversy has especially taken flight because of the strong American sentiment against terrorism and the grave consequences that come with being involved in terrorist acts or plans. Just when it comes to the ever elusive Fidel Castro’s regime, the American government has seemed to ignore them. These glaring contradictions highlight the American desire to oust Castro and gain more of a foothold in Cuba.
[7] [18][19][20]


2000 - Now

The Cuban-American relationship began looking up when at the Millennium Summit, Presidents’ Bill Clinton and Fidel Castro shook hands. According to Castro it was a gesture of “dignity and courtesy”7, however the White house denied any significance to the event. To some individuals like U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan the event was extremely momentous declaring, “For a U.S. president and a Cuban president to shake hands for the first time in over 40 years—I think it is a major symbolic achievement”7. There were still ups and downs in the relationship with each new American President sworn in. The George W. Bush administration “strongly enforced the embargo and strengthened travel restrictions”6, while former President Jimmy Carter visited Havana in 2002, raising hopes that “in both countries that it might herald a new period of greater understanding”6. However not until the Current U.S. President, Barack Obama, has a president taken actual measures to reduce the tension between the two countries.


In 2009, Obama lessened restriction of travel to Cuba, and has even started easing some economic sanctions on Cuba. Gestures such as this, while small, are the beginning to bridging the gap between the two countries, “Cuba's President Raul Castro has said he is prepared to negotiate with the new U.S. administration, providing there are no preconditions. President Obama clearly believes that engagement may yet achieve what the half-century embargo never did... real political change in Cuba”8.

Guantanamo Bay 1898-Now

Guantanamo Bay (GITMO) is located on the far south eastern corner of Cuba, about 400 miles from Florida. While technically owned by Cuba, GITMO is currently under lease to the United States of America, and has played a significant role in Cuban-U.S. relations. Guantanamo Bay caught the interest of the United States in 1898 during the Spanish-American War. They viewed Guantanamo Bay as ideal for
protecting the Panama Canal and as an area of tactical value to its Navy. An original lease was drawn up in 1903 and signed by Cuba’s first president Tomás Estrada Palma. Despite improvements in technology that meant that U.S. no longer needed GITMO for navy purposes, they still wanted it for political reasons.


The lease was revised in 1934, and was deemed permanent until both countries jointly agreed to break it off. However in 1959 when Fidel Castro seized control of Cuba, his government “denied the validity of the lease but inadvertently cashed the first lease payment”9. The United States government believes that the cashed cheque validates the lease, while Castro’s government argues that “the lease was obtained by force and is therefore illegal under international law. It further argues that the United States has broken the terms of the lease by allowing commercial use and other unauthorized uses of the property” 9. Despite these claims, the U.S. still maintains full control of the site.

As well, Guantanamo is also the site of the “Cactus Curtain", a physical and figurative deterrent used by the Cuban government. The term “Cactus Curtain” is considered to be Cuba’s “Iron Curtain” and characterises the separation between Cuba and GITMO. Castro even gave substance to the boundary creating a “curtain” of thousands of Nopalea cactus along the north-eastern section of GITMO to physically deter Cubans from escaping the island via the base.

The United States now currently uses Guantanamo Bay as a controversial detention centre for detainees in its war on terror, which advertently “enables it to employ practices that would be deemed illegal if they took place on the U.S. mainland”10. The International community has demanded for years that the U.S. stops these “practices”, many of which violate human rights. Stories have emerged about cases like adolescences - whose juvenile status’ were never recognized by the U.S., although “international law provides that anyone under 18 is a child and entitled to special treatment” 11 – to the various suicide attempts of prisoners, some successful, because “they were driven by despair” 12.Despite such cases, Guantanamo Bay is still being used by the U.S., however there are recent plans from current President Barack Obama, to close the prison.

Interesting Videos Related to the Cuba-United States Relationship

    1. The first video is a mini documentary by CBC News about the American government's plans for Cuba after Fidel Castro's death, something that he has still managed to elude to this day.
    2. The second video is a brief summary of Fidel Castro's agrarian reform in Cuba after his successful revolution against American backed dictator, Fulgencio Batista. It states that under Batista, foreigners owned 70% of the arable land and that most of the sugar industry, which happens to be one of Cuba's leading exports, was owned by American companies.
    3. The third video is a brief look at the embargo placed on Cuba by the United States from the perspective of a former CIA employee.









Group Bibliography:
Sharon Zumbado:

  1. Intervention of the United States in Cuba
    Author(s): John H. Latané
    Source: The North American Review, Vol. 166, No. 496 (Mar., 1898), pp. 350-361
    Published by: University of Northern Iowa
    Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25118971
  2. American Misgovernment of Cuba
    Author(s): J. E. Runcie
    Source: The North American Review, Vol. 170, No. 519 (Feb., 1900), pp. 284-294
    Published by: University of Northern Iowa
    Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25104956
  3. Explaining U.S. Intervention in Third World Internal Wars, 1945-1989
    Author(s): Mi Yung Yoon
    Source: The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 41, No. 4 (Aug., 1997), pp. 580-602
    Published by: Sage Publications, Inc.
    Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/174424
  4. Prensa Independiente, CubaNet.org, Tania Díaz Castro, Aquella intervención norteamericana, LA HABANA, Cuba, Septiembre 26, 2006, http://www.cubanet.org/CNews/y06/sep06/26a7.htm
  5. U.S. Intervention in Cuba, 1898: Interpreting the Spanish-American-Cuban-Filipino War
    Author(s): Thomas G. Paterson
    Source: Magazine of History, Vol. 12, No. 3, The War of 1898 (Spring, 1998), pp. 5-10
    Published by: Organization of American Historians
    Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25163213
  6. The Bay of Pigs, Latin American Studies Library, http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/baypigs.htm
  7. The John F. Kennedy Library and Museum, http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/JFK+in+History/JFK+and+the+Bay+of+Pigs.htm
  8. Library Think Quest, http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/bay_of_pigs.html
  9. Cuban History, http://www.marxists.org/history/cuba/subject/bay-of-pigs/index.htm
  10. EL EMBARGO DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS HACIA CUBA by Jaime Suchlicki, ICCAS Serie de Monografías, Febrero 2002 http://www6.miami.edu/iccas/El_Embargo.pdf
  11. Amnesty International: Cuba: The US embargo against Cuba: Its impact on economic and social rights. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AMR25/007/2009/en/51469f8b-73f8-47a2-a5bd-f839adf50488/amr250072009eng.pdf
  12. Pew Hispanic Center, August 25, 2006, Cubans in the United States. http://pewhispanic.org/files/factsheets/23.pdf
  13. Is trade embargo with Cuba hurting U.S. interests?, CNN Politics.com http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/05/04/cuba.embargo/index.html
  14. Virginia, Maryland Prepare for Cuban Detente, The Washington Post http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/05/03/AR2009050302101.html
  15. Proclamation 3447 - Embargo on All Trade with Cuba, February 3, 1962http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=58824

Gabriel Hernandez-Solano
1. http://maps.vnqconline.com/chau_my/cuba/IMGS/Cuba_Flag.gif
2. http://www.eindiavisa.com/flags/us_flag.gif
3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ZQsMr01XU0
4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vQCa0U0d7rM
5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bjm7gdNedJc
6. http://www.earlham.edu/~pols/ps17971/weissdo/background1.html
7. http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2008/01/14/cuba/
8. https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol49no4/Castro_Obsession_10.htm
9. http://latinamericanhistory.about.com/od/modernlatinamerica/p/intervention.htm
10. http://killinghope.org/
11. http://killinghope.org/bblum6/cuba.htm
12. http://www.ibiblio.org/pjones/russian/Cold_War__Cuban_Missile_Crisis.html
13. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/index.htm
14. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0002063
15. http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html
16. http://www.jstor.org/stable/174797
17. http://books.google.ca/books?id=ksYHt-Edc8QC&printsec=frontcover&dq=cuban+missile+crisis&source=bl&ots=1lc-Sk8d77&sig=K7RSj5z6cFYq7Z0SWfnyQrdmojY&hl=en&ei=mZayS_2qNIqQNs-nnacE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CBIQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q=cuban%20missile%20crisis&f=false
18. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/moment.htm
19. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/mariel-boatlift.htm
20. http://www.alpha66.org/english/our%20history.htm

Nicole Palardy:
Jaime Suchlicki. "Fidel Castro on the United States." Paper. 2003.
Becker, Jo. "The War on Teen Terror." Article. 2008.
Bevans, C.I. "Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America." Bevans, C.I. The Platt Amendment.
Britannica, Encyclopædia. Platt Amendment. 19 March 2010 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/464267/Platt-Amendment>.
Campuzano, Claudio. The earth-shattering, 'delightful' Clinton-Castro handshake. 18 September 2000. 23 March 2010 <http://www.worldtribune.com/worldtribune/Archive-2000/c09-18.html>.
Franklin, Jane. Cuba and the United States. Melbourne: Ocean Press, 1997.
Hanson, Stephanie. U.S.-Cuba Relations. 11 January 2010. 21 March 2010 <http://www.cfr.org/publication/11113/uscuba_relations.html>.
Kwintessential. US Base in Guantanamo. 26 March 2010 <http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/articles/article/Cuba/US-Base-in-Guantanamo-Bay/282>.
Louis A. Perez, Jr. Cuba and the United States: Ties of Singular Intamacy, Third Edition. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1988.
"Obama eases curbs on Cuba travel." Newspaper Article. 2009.
William L. Pfeifer, Jr. "The Evolution of Guantanamo Bay." Article

Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 197 1. 1116-17.

More related interesting videos for those would like to know more:

638 Ways to Kill Castro - British Documentaty - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FZ1QG4Bfgmk
Defcon 2 - Documentary about the Cuban Missile Crisis - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jwz7YAQj-r0
Cold War: Cuban Missile Crisis - Documentary - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=56lg2ET-HcE
Fidel Castro, Cuba, US, CIA Documentary - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f5LEFcnmyqU



Outline

Hernández-Solano, Gabriel:
  • Cubans in the United States
  • Communism, Socialism, Imperialism, Capitalism

Palardy, Nicole:

  • Guantanamo Bay
  • 19th Century to the Independence in Cuba
  • Relations
Zumbado, Sharon:
  • American Interventions in Cuba
  • Bay of Pigs
  • The embargo/ sanctions against Cuba

Discussion


Critical Response: Cuba and the United States
By Stephen Poffenroth

Good content, overall well written.

The group was able to support their thesis well, “[explaining] the development, complexities and the significant events” shaping US and Cuban relations. In reading these Wiki’s I gained a sense of the complexity surrounding Cuba’s past and the unique set of events that gradually polarized relations between the US and Cuba. Furthermore, I found that the information was presented in an informative and concise manner. I would however tweak the format to give the Wiki a little more clarity and to provide an easier read. I have selected and modified the following text at random:

Second American Intervention in Cuba:


In 1906 Tomás Estrada Palma was inaugurated President for a second term. The US signs a new lease for Guantánamo Bay and Bahía Honda, for which the U.S. will pay $2,000 per year. After this open rebellion breaks out. This becomes known as "the little war of August."

Estrada Palma orders an increase of 2,000 men in the rural guards. Rebel forces are in control of most of the island. Estrada says he will not deal with the rebels until they lay down their weapons.

President Palma asked for US forcible intervention. Pamphlets distributed in Havana accuse Estrada Palma of stalling for time while working to secure U.S. intervention. The U.S. accepts helping, then cruiser "Denver" arrives in Havana harbour.

Estrada Palma addresses the Cuban congress. U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt sends an open letter to Gonzalo de Quesada, the Cuban minister to Washington. He announces that he will send Secretary of War William H. Taft and Assistant Secretary of State Bacon to Cuba as special representatives. Taft and Bacon arrive in Havana on the S.S. Des Moines decide that the 1905 elections were dishonest. U.S. sailors land in Cienfuegos.

Estrada Palma hands custody of the treasury to Taft and Bacon. U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt names Taft "U.S. Governor of Cuba." The US takes control of the Cuban government. Later on Magoon replaces Taft as Military Governor of Cuba. In 1909 US military forces leave Cuba for 2nd time. Just like in 1906 the US occupies Cuba for a third time in 1912 to restore order. This will happen again from 1917 till 1922.


I have not changed any of the wordings or modified any of the sentence structure, but through the simple use of spacing the article becomes much more coherent.

In terms of my group’s topic, International Migration, it was interesting to hear about the major migrations that occurred 1959 to the present.
It was mentioned that ‘steps’ are taken once Cuban immigrants reach US soil to give them citizenship. In my research I came across a similar situation with regards to Mexican immigrates. Proposed changes to US immigration policy may give an estimated 12 million undeclared works Visa’s provided that they take steps to legally register themselves. If you would like to know more please visit the International Migrations page.
  1. ^ Franklin, Jane. Cuba and the United States. Melbourne: Ocean Press, 1997.
  2. ^ Franklin, Jane. Cuba and the United States. Melbourne: Ocean Press, 1997.
  3. ^ Franklin, Jane. Cuba and the United States. Melbourne: Ocean Press, 1997.
  4. ^ Tania Díaz Castro, Aquella intervención norteamericana, LA HABANA, Cuba, Septiembre 26, 2006, Cubanet.orghttp://www.cubanet.org/CNews/y06/sep06/26a7.htm