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Bi-lateral and Multi-lateral Trade Agreements
Crime Issues in Mega Cities
Cuba and the United States
Deforestation of the Amazon
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REPUBLIC OF EL SALVADOR
Motto: "Dios, Unión, Libertad" ( spanish)
''God, Union, Freedom''
l Salvador's flag consists of three equal horizontal stripes, the top and bottom are blue and the middle one is white, in the middle of flag is the country's co
Coat of arms, (World flags101,2009)
at of arms. The two horizontal blue stripes on the flag represent the Pacific ocean and the Caribbean sea, while the white horizontal stripe in the middle of the flag represents peace (World flags101,2009).The coat of arms on El Salvador's flag is based of the coat of arms for the former United Provinces of Central America. The triangle on El Salvador's coat of arms represents equality and the 3 branches of the country's government. The five volcanoes found inside the triangle symbolize the five former members of federation, the triangle also contains symbols of liberty, ideals of the people and peace which are all represented by a red cap, golden rays and a rainbow (Background note: El Salvador, 2009). The date El Salvador became independent from Spain is also found within the triangle on the country's coat of arms. The country's motto ''god, union, freedom'' is written underneath the triangle, the fourteen clusters of leaves around the triangle r
epresents the fourteen departments or states of El Salvador (World flags101,2009).
El Salvador, (CIA, 2009)
El Salvador is located in Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, in between Guatemala and Honduras. According to the Central Intelligence Agency (2009) El Salvador has an estimated population of 7,185,218 and a population density of 273 per square kilometer. The capital city of El Salvador is San Salvador, which is also the home of 972,810 people (world atlas,2009). El Salvador has 20,721 square kilometers of land and 320 square kilometers of water which means the country has a total area of 21,041 square kilometers, placing the country 153 on the Central Intelligence Agency's country comparison of area list (Central Intelligence Agency, 2009). The country has a roughly rectangular shape with 515 kilometers of land boundaries and 307 kilometers of coastline facing out towards the pacific ocean and it is the smallest Spanish-speaking nation in the Western Hemisphere(Mongabay,2009). The country's geographical coordinates are 13 50 N, 88 55 W (Central Intelligence Agency, 2009).
According to Mongabay (2009), El Salvador has a total of 300 rivers and numerous lakes of volcanic origin, these lakes are mostly found in the interior highlands. The most important river in El Salvador is Rio Lempa, which originates in Guatemala ( one of El Salvador's neighbor country's) and cuts across the northern range mountains, flows along most of the central plateau and cuts through the southern volcanic range and empties into the pacific ocean (Mongabay,2009). El Salvador largest lake lies just east of the capital and is called Lago de IIpango, other large lakes include Lago de Coatepeque in the west, Lago de Güija by the Guatemalan border, Cerron Grande Dam is a large reservoir and Embalse Cerron Grande in the north ( Mongabay, 2009).
El Salvador's terrain consists of mostly mountains with a narrow coastal belt, the country is known as the land of the volcanoes with volcanic activity and frequent destructive earthquakes. Unfortunately El Salvador is also very susceptible to hurricanes. El Salvador's lowest point is the Pacific Ocean at 0 meters and the country's highest point is Cerro El Pital at 2,730 meters(Central Intelligence Agency, 2009).
According to Mongabay(2009), El Salvador is one of the most seismologically active regions on earth and the reason El Salvador is so active is because the country is situated on top of large tectonic plates that make up the earths surface, the motion caused by these plates is the cause the area's frequent earthquake and volcanic activities.
One of El Salvador's many volcanoes (Rhinocarhire, 2009)
The two parallel mountain ranges which cross El Salvador from east to west divide the country into two physiographic regions (Central Intelligence Agency,2009). The mountain ranges and central plateau cover 85 percent of the land and are referred to as the interior highlands, while the remaining land is covered by the coastal plains and are referred to the pacific lowlands ( Mongabay, 2009). The mountain range in the north known as the Sierra Madre forms an uninterrupted chain along the border of Honduras (History Central, 2006). The elevation in the area range from 1,600 to 2,200 meters, it is heavily forested but sadly overexploitation has led to extensive erosion which has made the region semi barren. This region is also the country’s lowest populated zone, and due to poor soil quality there is little farming and other development (Mongabay,2009).The mountain range located in the south of El Salvador is interestingly a uninterrupted chain of more than 20 volcanoes, clustered into 5 groups (Central Intelligence Agency, 2009). The group of volcanoes located in the west near the Guatemalan border contains Izalco and Santa Ana, due to the rich volcanic soul in this area much of El Salvador’s coffee is planted on these slopes (Mongabay, 2009).
San Salvador downtown (google images, 2009)
El Salvador has a tropical climate on the coast and a temperate climate in the uplands with pronounced wet and dry seasons ( Mongabay, 2009). The rainy season starts in May and lasts throughout October and the dry season starts in November and lasts throughout April (Background note: El Salvador,2009). During the rainy season, locally known as invierno or winter, is when almost all the annual rainfall occurs and on the southern facing slopes it can be as high as 200 centimeters ( Mongabay,2009). The dry season in El Salvador, locally known as verano or summer, is controlled by the northeast trade winds and is very hot and dry (Mongabay, 2009). The temperatures in El Salvador mostly vary with elevation and they show little seasonal changes, the pacific lowlands are the hottest with average temperatures from 25-29 degrees celsius and the mountain areas are the coolest with average temperatures from 12-23 degrees celsius ( Mongabay, 2009).
The population of El Salvador at the time of the national census in 1971 was 3.5 million. According to estimates, population growth averaged 3.4 percent annually in the 1970s and 2.4 percent in the 1980s. Today, the population of El Salvador is an estimated 7 million (White, 2009). The capital of San Salvador contains 1.6 million people with thousands residing in nearby areas (US Department of State, 2009). Other major cities include Santa Ana, Santa Miguel and
The ethnic breakdown of Salvadorans consists of 90% Ladino (mixed white and Indian race), 9% Caucasian and 1% Indian (White, 2009). As per the status quo among Latin American countries, the vast majority (83%) of Salvadorans are Roman Catholic (White, 2009). El Salvador suffers from high population density with 644 people per square mile which is three and a half times denser than Guatemala’s and up to 10 times denser than that of other Central American nations (Food for the Poor, 2009). In general around 60% of the total population resides in urban areas and continues to grow. There has been a growing trend in Salvadorans leaving the country and migrating to the United States. This began in earnest as a result of the civil war of the 1980s that displaced fully one-fifth of the population, half of those entering the US. Overall net migration to the US is 3.05 migrants per 1,000 inhabitants (White, 2009).
El Salvador runs under a Presidential Representative Democratic Republic framework, whereby the President of El Salvador is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the legislative assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
List of Political Parties in El Salvador
Christian Democratic Party
(Partido Demócrata Cristiano,
National Action Party
(Partido Acción Nacional,
National Liberal Party
Partido Nacional Liberal,
Nationalist Republican Alliance
(Alianza Republicana Nacionalista,
Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front
(Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional,
FMLN)- ruling party
Party of National Conciliation
(Partido de Conciliación Nacional,
Republican People's Party
(Partido Popular Republicano,
Social Democratic Party
(Partido Social Demócrata,
United Democratic Centre
(Centro Democrático Unido,
The Two key political parties are the Nationalist Republic Alliance(ARENA) as well as Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front(FMLN)
El Salvador elects its Head of State – the President of El Salvador – directly through a fixed-date general election whose winner is decided by absolute majority. If an absolute majority (50% + 1) is not achieved by any candidate in the first round of a presidential election, then a run-off election is conducted 30 days later between the two candidates who obtained the most votes in the first round. The presidential period is five years, and re-election is not permitted.
The Current President is Mauricio Funes of the FMLN the Vice President is Salvador Sanchez Ceren of the FMLN
Salvadorians elect asingle chamber, unicameral national legislature which is known as the Legislative assembly of El Salvador. It has 84 members known as Deputies. 20 of the 84 seats are elected by a single national constiuency, the other 64 are elected in14 multi-constiuencies, corresponding to the 14 El Salvador Departments that range from 3-16 seats dependant on population size.
Health, Education, Gender:
El Salvador has a population of 7,185,218, 90% of the total population are Mestizo, 9% are white and the remaining 1% of the population are Amerindian ( CIA,2009). The majority of the population in El Salvador are Roman Catholic (57.1%) and Protestant (21.2%), while the rest of the population are Jehovah's witness (1.9%), Mormon (0.7%), other religions (2.3%) or non religious (16.8%) (CIA,2003).
The Constitution of El Salvador does not define or prohibit discrimination based on gender and the legislation provides for equality in the exercise of civil and political rights, but does not mention economic, social or cultural rights (Gender Index, 2009). There are no legal restrictions regarding women’s civil liberties in El Salvador, however women are restricted in certain way by tradition (Gender Index, 2009). Women appear to have freedom of movement; however the way they are allowed to dress is still restricted by tradition (History Central, 2006). The Family Code in El Salvador does not discriminate against women and polygamy does not appear to be practiced in El Salvador (Gender Index, 2009). The law allows for marriage from the age of 14 only if both the boy and girl have reached puberty, if the girl is pregnant or if they have had a child together.
The Family Code states that both spouses have equal rights and duties and that neither spouse can prevent the other from receiving education and that they both have equal authority and responsibility when it comes to raising their children (Gender Index, 2009). Sadly, many fathers fail to fulfill their family obligations and because of this many women take full responsibility for managing the households (Gender Index, 2009). Women have the same inheritance rights as men; inheriting is actually one of the most common ways most women become land owners. In theory, women are well protected in El Salvador; however violence against women is still a serious problem (Gender Index,2009). The government has created a national action plan to tackle domestic violence, but violence against women still seems to be socially acceptable among some (Gender Index, 2009).
The government of El Salvador has made a significant contribution to improving the financial situation of women. Recently, the government has promoted a land access program that appeared to benefit more women than men between 2003-2005 (Gender Index, 2009).
Literacy is defined by the Central Intelligence Agency (2009) as being over the age of 10 and being able to read and write, the total population literacy rate in El Salvador is 80.2%: the male literacy rate is 82.8% and the female literacy rate is 77.7%. The school life expectancy in El Salvador (primary to tertiary education) is 12 years for the total population, males and females ( CIA,2006). According to the Central Intelligence Agency (2006), El Salvador spends approximately 3.1% of its GDP on education.
In El Salvador the life expectancy at birth is 73 years for the total population, 68 years for men,76 years for females and each women gives birth to 3 children on average (CIA,2009). It is estimated that there is a HIV/AIDS adult prevalence of 0.8 percent, 1,700 deaths due to HIV/AIDS and that 35,000 people are living with HIV/AIDS in El Salvador (CIA,2007). According to the Central Intelligence Agency (2009) the risk of catching a major infectious disease is high in El Salvador, the most common of the food and waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and Typhoid fever, of the water contact diseases: Ieptospirosis and of the Vector borne diseases: Dengue fever. Vector borne diseases occurs with
indirect transmission of an infection that occurs when a vector bites or touches a you (Nation master, 2009).
Since the signing of the Peace Accords in 1992, which ended a prolonged civil war, El Salvador has made great progress towards sustainable development and democracy (IEQ,2009). Noticeable progress had been made in basic education, however early childhood development still needs improvement in areas where poverty is widespread (IEQ,2009). It is very important to provide services to children at an early age from these poor areas in order to increase school readiness and to maximize education outcomes (IEQ,2009). It is important for NGO’s to participate in early childhood development so that as many people as possible can be helped, unfortunately local NGO’s are lacking experience in assessing service delivery(IEQ,2009). IEQ works in El Salvador with the Fundación Salvadoreña de Salud y Desarrollo Social (FUSAL), a local NGO, in order to help children from the poorer areas get as much out of their education as possible(IEQ,2009).
Deforestation has had serious environmental impacts in El Salvador. El Salvador is the second most deforested country in Latin America after Haiti. Almost 85 percent of its forested cover has disappeared since the 1960s, leaving about 5 percent of the land area forested. Less than 6,000 hectares are classified as primary forest.
El Salvador is not even suitable for food cultivation, and much of the country is plagued with severe soil erosion. Denuded hillsides leave the country vulnerable to devastating mudslides. In October of 2005, landslides which resulted from a series of storms killed more than 50 people and required the evacuation of more than 34,000 residents. Degraded forest areas are more susceptible to fires—in 1998 fires caused more than $172 million in damage to forests and agricultural plots.
Deforestation removes the protective cover of vegetation that anchors soils and slows water runoff. Deforestation in El Salvador threatens much of the country with unstable hillsides. Tony Saca, El Salvador's president, estimates that "sixty-five per cent of the country is in danger of landslides." With the hurricane season of 2005 only halfway over, there is serious concern that further storms -- especially a hurricane -- could have a devastating impact.
Today most deforestation in El Salvador results from the country's high population that relies heavily on the collection of fuelwood and subsistence hunting and agriculture. Although the government has protected areas of forest, forestry laws go unenforced due to lack of funds and management. In total, El Salvador lost 20.5 percent of its forest cover between 1990 and 2005. The country's deforestation rate has increased by 18 percent since the close of the 1990s.
As one of the Western Hemisphere's poorest countries, rural residents of El Salvador depend largely on natural resource use for their survival. Thus much of El Salvador's deforestation results from subsistence agriculture and timber cutting for fuel wood. Deforestation-induced erosion and soil degradation has left much of the country unsuitable for agriculture and has put many people at risk during the tropical storms that regularly batter the region.
The last major hurricane to hit the region was Hurricane Mitch in 1998, the second deadliest hurricane on record. Mitch killed over 18,000 people in Central America, most of whom were killed in mudslides or swept away by floods. After the storm, aerial surveys revealed that the majority of landslides occurred on hillsides that had been cleared of vegetation for agriculture and human settlements. In forested areas, including several agroforestry plots where crops like coffee and cocoa were grown under the shade of canopy trees, few landslides occurred.
Some governments took notice and moved to protect watershed forests, but El Salvador has struggled to enforce forestry laws. The timing of the latest mudslides is particularly difficult for El Salvador which is recovering from another natural disaster over the weekend. On Saturday, the country's largest volcano, Ilamatepec, erupted for the first time in 100 years. 20,000 people were forced to evacuate the area.
Deforestation Rates, 2000-2005
Annual change in forest cover
: -5,200 ha
Annual deforestation rate
Change in defor. rate since '90s
Total forest loss since 1990
: -77,000 ha
Total forest loss since 1990
Primary or "Old-growth" forests
Annual loss of primary forests
Annual deforestation rate
Change in deforestation rate since '90s
Primary forest loss since 1990
Primary forest loss since 1990
None or unknown
Forest Area Breakdown
: 298,000 ha
: 6,000 ha
: 286,000 ha
: 6,000 ha
: 6,000 ha
% of total forest cover
Annual change rate (00-05)
El Salvador's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is dominated by the service industry which singularly makes up 64.1% of its Economy, followed by the Industrial sector at 24.7% and the Agriculture industry makes a small portion at 11.2%. As of January First 2001 the Traditional Currency of El Salvador Colon, was replaced and El Salvador now uses the American Dollar as its official currency.
: $24 Billion(US)
GDP per Capita
El Salvador's Exports
Coffee is still El Salvador's Major Export and makes up nearly a quarter of its exports, but they were forced to diversify there economy with textiles and apparel, ethyl alcohol, sugar, medicines, iron and steel products, tuna, light manufacturing, and paper products
El Salvador's Imports
Consumer Goods 15.6%
Industrial Supplies 29.4%
El Salvador's Main Trade partners
United States 323 1,322 999
Guatemala 323 488 165
Honduras 225 120 105
Nicaragua 108 70 38
Germany 94 76 18
Costa Rica 86 143 57
Panama 39 131 92
Mexico 25 256 231
Japan 21 123 102
Netherlands 2 176 174
Ecuador 1 151 1
Foreign trade - El Salvador - export
Over 41% of the population resides in rural areas and close to half of those rely upon subsistence farming for survival (International Fund for Agricultural Development, 2002). Agricultural farming in rural areas produces mainly poultry, dairy milk, sugar cane and coffee (IFD, 2002). El Salvador is still recovering from the aftermath of two massive earthquakes in February 2001 that greatly weakened the rural economy. While the urban poverty rate has fallen over the last decade, and social indicators have in general improved, rural poverty has remained stubbornly high. Even before the earthquakes, rural poverty was endemic with more than 54% of residents living below the poverty line, three in ten unable to read or write, and only 35% with access to potable water (USAID, 2002). According to the IFD (2002), rural poverty in El Salvador is the result of a number of factors including limited opportunities for income and employment; limited access to productive assets like land which is rare, extremely divided and overexploited; and linking small farmers to markets and poor marketing strategies. The percentage of farmland per capita in the country is 0.2 hectares, a proportion far below the Latin American average estimate of 1.3 hectares. The lack of agricultural land has contributed significantly to the overexploitation of soils and loss of plant mass which has a great impact on those relying on agriculture for survival.
Sonsonate, El Salvador, Celebration of St. Anthony (2008)
El Salvador is 75 percent Roman Catholic but has a growing Protestant movement. The Catholic Church returned to its traditional conservative stance after the end of the civil war. Among Protestant denominations, Pentecostal and fundamentalist sects—called evangelical churches—have had the largest growth. There are a number of reasons for the growth of evangelical churches in the last two decades of the twentieth century. First, Catholics were often targets of government repression for their "subversive" involvement in base Christian communities, while evangelicals were safe from government repression. Second, the evangelical emphasis on personal conversion is considered apolitical. Finally, small evangelical churches provide their members with a strong sense of community and family.
While the Catholic Church has allowed greater participation of religious lay workers, the possibilities for leadership in the laity are restricted. There are more possibilities in the evangelical churches for nonspecialists to rise to leadership positions. Such positions are restricted to men.
An interesting fact is that the
Catholics of El Salvador devote nine nights of prayer for deceased persons so that the souls of the dead can be purified and they can rise from purgatory to heaven.
Food in Daily Life:
Corn is the staple of the diet and is most often made into thick tortillas that are eaten at every meal and also are served as tamales and in a thick corn drink called
Small red beans are the other staple.
As well, El Salvadorans on a standard daily fare of casamiento, a mixture of rice and beans.
A variety of fruits and vegetables are eaten, including mango, papaya, tamarind, oranges, bananas, watermelon, cucumber,
lettuce, tomatoes, and radish. Salvadorans also eat rice, eggs, chicken, pork, beef, fish and seafood.Coffee is the most common drink, along with highly sugared fruit drinks.
(new corn) are eaten in September before the corn hardens. Restaurants are most often cafeterias,
where food is ordered from a menu near the kitchen or a buffet table and waitresses bring the food to the table. There are fast food restaurants in the cities which are more expensive, and expensive restaurants where food is ordered from a menu at the table.
A famous well known dish in El Salvador is
(from Pipil pupusawa) is a thick, hand-made corn tortilla (made using masa de maíz, a maize flour dough used in Latin American cuisine) that is stuffed with one or more of the following: cheese (
) (usually a soft Salvadoran cheese called
), fried pork rind (
), chicken (
), refried beans (
queso con loroco
(loroco is a vine flower bud from Central America). There is also the
with mixed ingredients, such as queso (cheese), chicharrón or bacon, and frijoles (beans). Some more creative pupuserías found in western El Salvador serve pupusas with exotic ingredients, such as shrimp, squash, or local herbs.Pupusas are traditionally served with
(a pickled cabbage relish, possibly containing hot peppers) and tomato sauce, and are traditionally eaten by hand.
Arts and Humanities:
Salvadoran literary production in the latter twentieth century has been concerned with a re-examination of the national history. Notable works include the novels and poetry of Manlio Argueta, the poetry of Roque Dalton, and the short stories of José Marie Mendez. The country suffers from a lack of publishing facilities.
The village of La Palma has become famous for a school of art started by Fernando Llort. Images of mountain villages, campesinos, and Christ are painted in bright colors on a variety of wooden objects. The town of Ilobasco is known for its ceramics, while San Sebastián is known for its textile art.
Most of the music on Salvadoran radio is standard pop fare from the United States, Mexico, and various Latin American countries, but there is a small underground movement of folk music which draws its inspiration from current events in El Salvador.
Music in El Salvador features religious songs, which are mostly Roman Catholic. These were used during the Christmas time as well as other holidays, especially during the feast days celebrated by the saints. Folk songs are also popular among the El Salvador Music. The modern music includes cumbia, hip hop, salsa and reggaeton. However the traditional Music of El Salvador was greatly influenced by the native cultures. The Spanish conquest did play a role in the culture and music of El Salvador as well. Thus till today, Spanish Music is popular in El Salvador. However some of the popular El Salvador Music includes Pipil and Maya, which are mostly based on drums, flutes and rattles. With time, even the fusion of European Classical Music with native
El Salvador Music
is also very popular among the people in El Salvador. The blend of European Classical Music, Spanish Music and traditional El Salvador Music is truly exquisite. The popular El Salvador Music is based on the instruments like drums, flutes, scrapers, guitars and gourds.
Holidays in El Salvador:
The Holidays in El Salvador are observed in order to mark various events and festivals. El Salvador is a well known country in Central America and is a popular tourist destination. The diverse culture of El Salvador also adds to its charm. The rich tradition and diverse culture of the country has led to the observation of various Holidays in El Salvador. The Holidays of El Salvador include religious holidays as well as social and cultural holidays. The holidays are finalized by the government in accordance with the religious and social events. El Salvador Holidays provide excellent opportunities for people to have an enjoying time. The weekly holiday in the country is on Sunday. Saturdays sometimes have half day off. Most offices, financial and educational institutions and other organizations remain closed on the holidays.
Some of the popular holidays in El Salvador are:
Peace Accords Day (January 16): It is a well known holiday in the country. The holiday is observed to mark the signing of the peace accords between the government and the guerrilla troops in the year 1992 to end the civil war.
August Festival (August 1 to 7): The holiday lasts for 7 days. The whole week is marked with fun and frolic. Wide spread celebrations are held all over the year.
Independence Day (September 15): It is observed to mark the independence of El Salvador from Spain.
Day of the Dead (November 2): It is a religious holiday. On this day, people visit the tombs of the relatives and the deceased to pay their respects.
Christmas (December 25): Christmas is celebrated with wide spread enjoyment in El Salvador. Being primarily a Christian country, thousands of people celebrate during the day. Various amusement and cultural activities are held all over the year during Christmas.
Other than these, there are also other important Holidays in El Salvador. These holidays are observed to mark various religious and social events and have great significance in the lives of the people. Some popular holidays on El Salvador are:
March or April: Holy Week/Easter
October 12: Day of the Indians
Spanish is the main and official language of El Salvador. The local Spanish vernacular is called Caliche. Nahuat is the indigenous language that has survived, though it is only used by small communities of elderly Salvadorans in western El Salvador.
Other existing languages in the country are the following:
Pipil or Nawat – the language is initially spoken by the Pipils in western part of the country. Pipils and the individuals of the country normally denote the language as Nawat.
Q'eqchi' - a mayan language
El Salvador is the smallest country in Central America (slightly smaller than the US state of Massachusetts.) Despite its small size it has the third largest economy in Central America. The biggest Shopping Center and the biggest airport in all of Central America are located in this tiny country.
El Salvador is the only Latin American country that has troops in Iraq. It has used the US dollar as its main currency since 2001. Prior to this, El Salvador’s currency was the Colon, which was worth 8.75 for every US dollar. The country’s minimum wage is US $120-150 per month. Approximately 49% percent of the rural population lives bellow the poverty line, and 61% percent of this population does not have access to water piped into their homes. It’s the most densely populated country in all of the Americas.
El Salvador has pristine forests, sparkling lakes, and a total of twenty-one active volcanoes, including the Santa Ana volcano.
Coatepeque is a sparkling blue crater lake under the peaks of Cerro Verde Izalco and Santa Ana. It was formed by a volcano that blew up countless years ago, and then caved in on itself leaving a lake in the crater.
Punta Roca is El Salvador’s most famous surfing spots; in fact it happens to be considered one of the best surfing spots in the world. But yet, is the only country in Central America that does not have a Caribbean coastline.
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Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2009) Factbook: El Salvador, retrieved January 20, 2010 from
Food for the Poor (2009).
. Retrieved from:
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Google Images (2009) San Salvador Downtown, retrieved January 29, 2010 from
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IEQ (2009) El Salvador country page, retrieved on February 1,2010 from
International Fund for Agricultural Development. (2002).
Rural Poverty Portal. El Salvador: Geography, Agriculture and Economy.
International Fund for Agricultural Development. (2002).
Rural Poverty Portal. Rural Poverty in El Salvador.
Rhinocarhire (2009) Volcano Image from El Salvador, retrieved on January 30, 2010 from
Mongabay (2009) El Salvador - Geography, retrieved on January 30, 2010 from
Nation Master (2009) Health statistics - major infectious diseases - vector borne diseases retrieved on January 31,2010 from:
White, C. M. (2009).
The History of El Salvador.
West Port, Connecticut: Greenwood Press
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World Flags 101 (2009), El Salvador, retrieved on January 20, 2010 from
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). Background Note: El Salvador.
Mongabay (2009). El Salvador- Environmental Issues, retrieved on January 29, 2010 from
Mongabay (2009). El Salvador- El Salvador Forest Figures Percentages Rate, retrieved on January 29, 2010 from
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